Access Mixins

These mixins all control a user’s access to a given view. Since many of them extend the AccessMixin, the following are common attributes:

login_url = settings.LOGIN_URL
raise_exception = False
redirect_field_name = REDIRECT_FIELD_NAME
redirect_unauthenticated_users = False

The raise_exception attribute allows for these scenarios, in case a permission is denied:

  • False (default): redirects to the provided login view.
  • True: raises a PermissionDenied exception.
  • A subclass of Exception: raises this exception.
  • A callable: gets called with the request argument. The function has to return a HttpResponse or StreamingHttpResponse (Django 1.5+), otherwise a PermissionDenied exception gets raised.

This gets done in handle_no_permission, which can be overridden itself.

LoginRequiredMixin

This mixin is rather simple and is generally the first inherited class in any view. If you don’t have an authenticated user, there’s no need to go any further. If you’ve used Django before you are probably familiar with the login_required decorator. This mixin replicates the decorator’s functionality.

Note

As of version 1.0, the LoginRequiredMixin has been rewritten to behave like the rest of the access mixins. It now accepts login_url, redirect_field_name and raise_exception.

Note

This should be the left-most mixin of a view, except when combined with CsrfExemptMixin - which in that case should be the left-most mixin.

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces.views import LoginRequiredMixin


class SomeSecretView(LoginRequiredMixin, TemplateView):
    template_name = "path/to/template.html"

    #optional
    login_url = "/signup/"
    redirect_field_name = "hollaback"
    raise_exception = True

    def get(self, request):
        return self.render_to_response({})

An optional class attribute of redirect_unauthenticated_users can be set to True if you are using another access mixin with raise_exception set to True. This will redirect to the login page if the user is not authenticated, but raises an exception if they are but do not have the required access defined by the other mixins. This defaults to False.

PermissionRequiredMixin

This mixin was originally written by Daniel Sokolowski (code here), but this version eliminates an unneeded render if the permissions check fails.

Rather than overloading the dispatch method manually on every view that needs to check for the existence of a permission, use this mixin and set the permission_required class attribute on your view. If you don’t specify permission_required on your view, an ImproperlyConfigured exception is raised reminding you that you haven’t set it.

The one limitation of this mixin is that it can only accept a single permission. If you need multiple permissions use MultiplePermissionsRequiredMixin.

In normal use of this mixin, LoginRequiredMixin comes first, then the PermissionRequiredMixin. If the user isn’t an authenticated user, there is no point in checking for any permissions.

Note

If you are using Django’s built in auth system, superusers automatically have all permissions in your system.

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces import views


class SomeProtectedView(views.LoginRequiredMixin,
                        views.PermissionRequiredMixin,
                        TemplateView):

    permission_required = "auth.change_user"
    template_name = "path/to/template.html"

The PermissionRequiredMixin also offers a check_permissions method that should be overridden if you need custom permissions checking.

MultiplePermissionsRequiredMixin

The MultiplePermissionsRequiredMixin is a more powerful version of the PermissionRequiredMixin. This view mixin can handle multiple permissions by setting the mandatory permissions attribute as a dict with the keys any and/or all to a list or tuple of permissions. The all key requires the request.user to have all of the specified permissions. The any key requires the request.user to have at least one of the specified permissions. If you only need to check a single permission, the PermissionRequiredMixin is a better choice.

Note

If you are using Django’s built in auth system, superusers automatically have all permissions in your system.

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces import views


class SomeProtectedView(views.LoginRequiredMixin,
                        views.MultiplePermissionsRequiredMixin,
                        TemplateView):

    #required
    permissions = {
        "all": ("blog.add_post", "blog.change_post"),
        "any": ("blog.delete_post", "user.change_user")
    }

The MultiplePermissionsRequiredMixin also offers a check_permissions method that should be overridden if you need custom permissions checking.

GroupRequiredMixin

New in version 1.2.

The GroupRequiredMixin ensures that the requesting user is in the group or groups specified. This view mixin can handle multiple groups by setting the mandatory group_required attribute as a list or tuple.

Note

The mixin assumes you’re using Django’s default Group model and that your user model provides groups as a ManyToMany relationship. If this is not the case, you’ll need to override check_membership in the mixin to handle your custom set up.

Standard Django Usage

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces.views import GroupRequiredMixin


class SomeProtectedView(GroupRequiredMixin, TemplateView):

    #required
    group_required = u"editors"

Multiple Groups Possible Usage

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces.views import GroupRequiredMixin


class SomeProtectedView(GroupRequiredMixin, TemplateView):

    #required
    group_required = [u"editors", u"admins"]

Custom Group Usage

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces.views import GroupRequiredMixin


class SomeProtectedView(GroupRequiredMixin, TemplateView):

    #required
    group_required = u"editors"

    def check_membership(self, group):
        ...
        # Check some other system for group membership
        if user_in_group:
            return True
        else:
            return False

Dynamically Build Groups

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces.views import GroupRequiredMixin


class SomeProtectedView(GroupRequiredMixin, TemplateView):
    def get_group_required(self):
        # Get group or groups however you wish
        group = 'secret_group'
        return group

UserPassesTestMixin

New in version 1.3.0.

Mixin that reimplements the user_passes_test decorator. This is helpful for much more complicated cases than checking if user is_superuser (for example if their email is from a specific domain).

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces.views import UserPassesTestMixin


class SomeUserPassView(UserPassesTestMixin, TemplateView):
    def test_func(self, user):
        return (user.is_staff and not user.is_superuser
                and user.email.endswith(u"mydomain.com"))

SuperuserRequiredMixin

Another permission-based mixin. This is specifically for requiring a user to be a superuser. Comes in handy for tools that only privileged users should have access to.

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces import views


class SomeSuperuserView(views.LoginRequiredMixin,
                        views.SuperuserRequiredMixin,
                        TemplateView):

    template_name = u"path/to/template.html"

AnonymousRequiredMixin

New in version 1.4.0.

Mixin that will redirect authenticated users to a different view. The default redirect is to Django’s settings.LOGIN_REDIRECT_URL.

Static Examples

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces.views import AnonymousRequiredMixin


class SomeView(AnonymousRequiredMixin, TemplateView):
    authenticated_redirect_url = u"/send/away/"
from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse_lazy
from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces.views import AnonymousRequiredMixin


class SomeLazyView(AnonymousRequiredMixin, TemplateView):
    authenticated_redirect_url = reverse_lazy(u"view_url")

Dynamic Example

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces.views import AnonymousRequiredMixin


class SomeView(AnonymousRequiredMixin, TemplateView):
    """ Redirect based on user level """
    def get_authenticated_redirect_url(self):
        if self.request.user.is_superuser:
            return u"/admin/"
        return u"/somewhere/else/"

StaffuserRequiredMixin

Similar to SuperuserRequiredMixin, this mixin allows you to require a user with is_staff set to True.

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces import views


class SomeStaffuserView(views.LoginRequiredMixin,
                        views.StaffuserRequiredMixin,
                        TemplateView):

    template_name = u"path/to/template.html"

SSLRequiredMixin

New in version 1.8.0.

Simple view mixin that requires the incoming request to be secure by checking Django’s request.is_secure() method. By default the mixin will return a permanent (301) redirect to the https verison of the current url. Optionally you can set raise_exception=True and a 404 will be raised.

Standard Django Usage

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces.views import SSLRequiredMixin


class SomeSecureView(SSLRequiredMixin, TemplateView):
    """ Redirects from http -> https """
    template_name = "path/to/template.html"

Standard Django Usage

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces.views import SSLRequiredMixin


class SomeSecureView(SSLRequiredMixin, TemplateView):
    """ http request would raise 404. https renders view """
    raise_exception = True
    template_name = "path/to/template.html"

RecentLoginRequiredMixin

New in version 1.8.0.

This mixin requires a user to have logged in within a certain number of seconds. This is to prevent stale sessions or to create a session time-out, as is often used for financial applications and the like. This mixin includes the functionality of LoginRequiredMixin, so you don’t need to use both on the same view.

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

from braces.views import RecentLoginRequiredMixin


class SomeSecretView(RecentLoginRequiredMixin, TemplateView):
    max_last_login_delta = 600  # Require a login within the last 10 minutes
    template_name = "path/to/template.html"